The American Pit Bull Terrier is athletic, strong, and agile with a deep chest and a squarely built, sturdy body. The medium-length head has a flat skull with prominent cheek muscles, and a broad, square, or slightly tapering muzzle with powerful jaws. The high-set ears might be cropped or uncropped. The eyes are round, set low and far apart. The eyes and nose can be any color. The back is short, a bit higher at the withers and slightly arched at the loin, but the body is slightly longer than tall. The tapering tail is rather short and low-set. It should never be carried over the back, and it should never be docked or bobbed. The coat is short. All colors and color combinations are permissible except for merle. The standard for the American Pit Bull Terrier is looser than for many other breeds, as this dog was bred for working and fighting ability and not for his looks. For example, some smaller dogs may be 35 lbs. while some weight pulling competitors weigh up to 95 lbs. Dogs should be well proportioned for their size and should move with a springy gait.
Several types of dogs are currently called "pit bulls" in the United States: the American Staffordshire Terrier, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Pit Bull Terrier. Ancestors of today's "pit bulls" were developed in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century England from ancient Mastiff stock. These early bulldogs were used for hunting difficult game such as wild boar, and as catch dogs for farmers and butchers. The dogs would catch hogs by the ear and bulls by the nose until their master could get a rope around the animal. These dogs also were used in displays of bullbaiting. The name “bulldog” might have come from the dog’s use on bulls, but it also might have originally been "bold dog" because the breed was unafraid of such formidable animals as bears and bulls. Early artwork reveals that today's American Pit Bull Terrier looks a lot like the original bulldog, so it very well may be a direct descendant, with little in the way of crosses to other breeds. However, the exact mixes that went into what we know as the pit-bull breeds today are shrouded in mystery; owners of fighting dogs were so competitive with each other that they did not divulge their breeding secrets.
When British settlers came to America, they brought their dogs of various sorts with them, including pit-bull types. The role of these versatile, intelligent dogs expanded to include working cattle and hogs; fighting and hunting bears, cougars, and wolves; and protecting the family and homestead. The American Pit Bull Terrier has been called by many names, including the “Old Family Dog” and American Bull Terrier. The RCA Victor mascot was an American Pit Bull, as was Buster Brown's dog "Tige," and "Petey" of The Little Rascals. The American Pit Bull Terrier is recognized by the ADBA (American Dog Breeders' Association, the flagship registry) and the United Kennel Club (UKC). In fact, the United Kennel Club was originally formed by its founder, Chauncy Bennett, to provide a registry specifically for American Pit Bull Terriers.
In 1936, some American Pit Bull Terrier breeders spun off to join the AKC so they could participate in conformation showing in that organization, and the breed was renamed the Staffordshire Terrier. However, some individual dogs (including "Petey" of The Little Rascals) were and still are being registered in both organizations, under both breed names. In 1972, when the Staffordshire Terrier's English cousin, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, joined the AKC, the Staffordshire Terrier was renamed the American Staffordshire Terrier to further distinguish it from the British breed.
Though the American Pit Bull Terrier has received a great deal of negative publicity, this is mostly due to unscrupulous breeders who have encouraged aggressive characteristics in the breed. This athletic, versatile, affectionate breed can be an excellent working dog and family companion when given the right socialization, handling, and training. His working abilities and athleticism also help him excel at many sports, including obedience, agility, and weight pulling.